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How to Master Content - Chapter 3

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This page will teach you exactly how to develop compelling content.


It will teach you the main ideas from Chapter 3 of How to Master Public Speaking.


You will learn how to make the most of your content...


...and easily captivate your audiences with proven methods.


Are you ready? Let's get started.

Contents of This Chapter

Speech Structure

There's one speech structure that can be adapted to almost anything.




It is so common, that it can be... well...




But fear not:


I will teach you MANY structures. We have to start with this one, though. It's still incredibly useful.


Here it is:


  1. Personal introduction (1 minute).

  2. Hook (1 minute).

  3. Speech introduction (2 minutes).

  4. Subpoint A (3 minutes).

  5. Subpoint B (3 minutes).

  6. Subpoint C (3 minutes).

  7. Closing (2 minutes).

  8. Call to action (1 minute).


Simple. Elegant. Easy.


Here's what you're really doing:


Introducing yourself, grabbing the audience's attention, introducing your thesis, building three points that support your thesis, wrapping it all together, and calling your audience to action.


There is so much to be said about each of these individual steps... many questions to be answered.


Personal introduction:


How do you develop authority, build reciprocity, and portray humility in the personal introduction?




How do you hook your audience? A rhetorical question? A statistic? A joke?


Speech introduction:


How do you introduce your thesis? With an AIDA formula (we'll talk about it)? With the informational motivated sequence (we'll talk about it)? With the reverse pyramid (we'll talk about it)?




How do you transition between your subpoints? How do you choose your 3 subpoints in the first place? How do you make them compelling?



In public speaking, you need to know two things:


  1. Know thyself.

  2. Know thy venue.


So many openings have been blundered because of the venue...


...or rather, the speaker's lack of knowledge about the venue.


That aside:


You need to decide how to conduct your personal introduction.


Conversational? Formal? Prepared beforehand? Impromptu?


Are you going to inform about yourself? Tell an entertaining story? An inspirational one?


Here's what you need to know:


Your opening is a gateway into your speech.


Want to know how to conduct your opening?


Here's how:


However you are conducting your speech.



Have you ever tried driving on a road with no road signs on it?


Of course not. Those roads don't exist.


Unfortunately, speeches with no road signs do exist. They confuse audiences around the world every single day


Speech roadsigns? Yes. I'm not crazy. I promise.


Transition phrases are the road signs of your speech.


Why? Because they provide context. They tell your audience where you are taking them. They prepare your audience for what's coming.


How? By giving information about the information you are going to present.


Transitions are absolutely necessary in written speeches.


Here are the different types of transitions (the book gives examples):


  • Transitions of difference between ideas.

  • Transitions of elaborating on an idea.

  • Transitions of steps in a process.

  • Transitions of returning to a previous idea.

  • Transitions of conclusion.

  • Transitions of beginning.

  • Transitions of cause and effect.

  • Transitions of examples.

  • Transations of quotations.

  • Transitions of summary.


Here's just one example:


When you make a statement about something, and then say “on the contrary," it signals to your audience that they should be prepared to pay attention to the differences between what you are going to say and what you previously said.


This is an INSANELY powerful mental primer.


But unfortunately...'s so subtle that it's often overlooked.


Here's why transitions are so powerful:


They tell your audience where you are going to go next, and how it relates to what you have previously said. They put every statement you make in context.


Why put information in context? Well, here's another fundamental truth of public speaking (I have a lot of these... I should make a public speaking manifesto):


Context is understanding.


Let me reframe public speaking for you:


Public speaking is using your audience's attention to fulfill a purpose.


Here's why I'm telling you this:


So many speakers try to fulfill a purpose with the audience's attention...


...without actually getting their attention in the first place!


But there's a solution:


The speech hook. A tool to immediately hook your audience's attention.


Here's (some) of the hook tips from the book:


  • Use rhetorical questions as hooks.

  • Use powerful statistics as hooks.

  • Use a dramatic pause after your hook.

  • Use an eccentric hook.


Part of me wanted to leave you with just those, and tell you to buy the book for the rest.


But I'm too nice. And the hook is too important. So... are the rest:


  • Make the hook of real impact, not trivial.

  • Make the hook echo the message of your speech.

  • Make the hook jarring.


Again... I was about to stop, and tell you to buy the book.


But what am I? Too damn nice.


Here are more of them:


  • Write a hook that points out the relevance of your subject to every individual audience member.

  • Paint an enthralling image with your hook. Use words like "imagine."

  • Pose thought provoking hypthotheticals: "what if [scenario]? Well, [scenario] is already happening."

  • Establish immediacy. "This is happening right now, as we speak."

  • Establish urgency. "If we don't do something now, [bad things] will happen."


Why did I just reveal all the secret ingredients to amazing hooks here?


Isn't my book supposed to teach you them?


Well yeah...


But I'm too... you already know what I'm going to say.


Call to Action

Salt and _____


Peanut butter and _____


Hook and _____


You definitely thought "salt and pepper," and "peanut butter and jelly."


You probably didn't think "hook and call to action."


But you should have.


Here's why:


A hook happens at the start of your speech. Its purpose? To grab your audience's attention.


A call to action happens at the end of your speech. Its purpose? To make something of your speech. To put your audience's attention to good use.


A hook gets your audience's attention, a call to action directs it to specific actions.


You absolutely NEED a call to action. Without one, even the MOST INCREDIBLE speech would have no real-world impact.


And that's why we speak publicly...


...for real-world impact.


So here's what the book has to say about calls to action:


"No matter how brilliant a speech made to persuade or inspire is, it needs a call to action to be truly useful. A call to action is something towards the end of your speech designed to rouse your audience to aid your cause in a specific way. An example of a powerful call to action is “if you were in any way moved by what I’ve had to say today, and if you want to help me in my effort to stop climate change, please start carpooling in order to reduce carbon emissions.”


A call to action needs to be direct to be effective. It must have a tangible impact. After persuading the audience to agree with your purpose, give them exact steps on how to help and contribute to the effort. The implication that they would actually be helping themselves by helping you is very powerful as well. Implying that through helping you, they would be creating a better future for themselves and their families is a powerful motivator.


Keep your call to action reasonable. If a climatologist told their audience to trade their cars in for electric cars, the vast majority of people wouldn’t. Would you trade in your car for an electric car because a speaker told you to? No, probably not. If a climatologist made the call to action more reasonable, like recycling and carpooling, it’s more likely that the audience would actually do it. The effectiveness of a call to action is, in many cases, determined by how well you persuaded, inspired, and moved your audience leading up to it.


Never forget a call to action. It is important because it answers the following question for your audience: “Okay, I agree with you, and I want to help. How can I help? What do you want me to do?” If you neglect to answer that question, then your speech may be engaging, beautiful, and masterful, but little real-world change will come of it."


Rhetorical Strategies

There's a question with a many answers.


Here it is:


"What is a rhetorical strategy?" 


We throw around the phrase "rhetorical strategy" in a way that is unbefiting of its awesome power.


Not just us, but elite academics of prestigious universities around the world.


Shame on them.


By the broadest definition, there are roughly 300 rhetorical strategies.


By the strictest definition, there are 3. This is the definition I use.


But don't worry:


You aren't missing anything. I cover the other 297 techniques in the book. Just not as rhetorical strategies.


Here are the big three:


  • Pathos

  • Ethos

  • Logos


First, let's cover pathos.


Pathos is the art of playing upon an audience’s emotions.


You know the PETA commercials that show videos sad puppies?


That's pathos.


But pathos goes beyond that.


Pathos is incredibly versatile and insanely powerful.


Here's why:


Emotion is a broad spectrum of feelings and sentiments. Anger, happiness, sadness, love, desire, and jealousy are all emotions that you can tap into with pathos.


Emotion is a very powerful motivator: the majority of decisions are made on emotional impulses.


Want to know how you decide which emotion to tap into?


I'll tell you:


You need emotion-action convergence. In simple terms, you need to build the emotion that will make your audience most likely to follow your call to action.


Pathos is done. Now ethos!


Ethos is using expert testimony to support your idea.


It most often takes the form of quoting statements made by experts in a field. A pharmaceutical salesman might say something along the lines of “two in every three doctors agree on the effectiveness of this medicine," or "according to Dr. Martin, this medicine is a surefire and safe way to get rid of a headache.”


But what if you are Dr. Martin?


Congratulations, because you have something very powerful:


Personal ethos.


Ethos can also take the form of personal ethos. In this case, a speaker uses conviction and has the necessary credentials that outside testimony becomes unnecessary because their word stands on its own.


And lastly, logos.


Logos is the use of pure logic that, combined with ethos and pathos, will form a rhetorically powerful speech.


If humans make decisions based on emotion, why do you need logos?


Because humans love making decisions based on emotion, but hate admitting that they made a decision based on emotion.


And logos is the solution...


...because it gives them a way to justify their emotional decision.


Pathos, ethos, logos.


Combine them, and you have one convincing speech.

There's a question with a many answers.


Here it is:


"What is a rhetorical strategy?" 


We throw around the phrase "rhetorical strategy" in a way that is unbefiting of its awesome power.


Not just us, but elite academics of prestigious universities around the world.


Shame on them.


By the broadest definition, there are roughly 300 rhetorical strategies.


By the strictest definition, there are 3. This is the definition I use.


But don't worry:


You aren't missing anything. I cover the other 297 techniques in the book. Just not as rhetorical strategies.


Here are the big three:


  • Pathos

  • Ethos

  • Logos


First, let's cover pathos.


Pathos is the art of playing upon an audience’s emotions.


You know the PETA commercials that show videos sad puppies?


That's pathos.


But pathos goes beyond that.


Pathos is incredibly versatile and insanely powerful.


Here's why:


Emotion is a broad spectrum of feelings and sentiments. Anger, happiness, sadness, love, desire, and jealousy are all emotions that you can tap into with pathos.


Emotion is a very powerful motivator: the majority of decisions are made on emotional impulses.


Want to know how you decide which emotion to tap into?


I'll tell you:


You need emotion-action convergence. In simple terms, you need to build the emotion that will make your audience most likely to follow your call to action.


Pathos is done. Now ethos!


Ethos is using expert testimony to support your idea.


It most often takes the form of quoting statements made by experts in a field. A pharmaceutical salesman might say something along the lines of “two in every three doctors agree on the effectiveness of this medicine," or "according to Dr. Martin, this medicine is a surefire and safe way to get rid of a headache.”


But what if you are Dr. Martin?


Congratulations, because you have something very powerful:


Personal ethos.


Ethos can also take the form of personal ethos. In this case, a speaker uses conviction and has the necessary credentials that outside testimony becomes unnecessary because their word stands on its own.


And lastly, logos.


Logos is the use of pure logic that, combined with ethos and pathos, will form a rhetorically powerful speech.


If humans make decisions based on emotion, why do you need logos?


Because humans love making decisions based on emotion, but hate admitting that they made a decision based on emotion.


And logos is the solution...


...because it gives them a way to justify their emotional decision.


Pathos, ethos, logos.


Combine them, and you have one convincing speech.



Basics of Persuasion

I'm sure you know that persuasion is an important skill, right?


You do know that...




If not, let me tell you:


Persuasion is CRITICAL for success. Public speaking and persuasion go hand in hand.


BILLION DOLLAR FORTUNES have been built by persuasion.


Now I have a secret for you:


All persuasion can be broken down into 6 principles. Just 6.


Credit to a man named Robert Cialdini for finding the principles.


Credit to me for figuring out EXACTLY how to apply them to public speaking.


Credit to me (I like me) for breaking it all down into a step-by-step process, and including the core human psychological drives.


It's pretty powerful stuff. It's also a highly treasured secret. It's all in the book.


But let me tell you my absolute favorite lesson from my book. It will change the way you think of persuasion.


You'll be able to convince anyone of anything. Well, you won't be doing any "convincing." In fact, they'll be convincing themselves to do what you want them to do.


Are you ready?


Read closely. The lesson is in a fable:


The wind and the sun were mortal enemies. They despised each other.


Why? Because they each thought they were the more powerful one.


One day, they decided to settle their differences once and for all.


How? Through a competition to determine who truly was the more powerful one.


Here it is:


They spotted a traveler walking down the village road; they agreed that whoever could get the traveler's heavy coat off would be the victor.


The wind went first:


He blew, and blew, and blew...


...trying to rip the coat off with sheer brute force...


...but the harder he blew, the tighter the traveler pulled his coat.


Finally, out of breath, the wind gave up.


The sun watched this all (with smug satisfaction, I assume).


Here's what the sun did:


He gently shined his beams of warmth on the traveler's face. He showered the traveler in pleasant,  golden beams of light.


Surprised by the sudden warmth, after gusts of the wind's harsh treatment, the traveler did something amazing.


I wholeheartedly believe that the secret to success lies in the ending of this fable.


What did the traveler do?


Well, the same thing you would do, old sport.


He took his own coat off.


And the moral? 


Gentle persuasion wins where forceful persuasion fails.


The coat represents a persuasion resistance that everyone carries like a shield. Indeed, persuasion resistance is a well-documented psychological phenomenon.


Here's why:


Many assume that if you try to persuade them of something, it must be beneficial for you at their expense.


So this is what you do:


Do not try to rip the shield from people for that will surely fail. Instead, get them to willingly give up their shield just as the traveler took off his coat.




Shine your gentle, loving beams of warmth on them.



Let's say that you can choose 1 of 2 scenarios to deliver your speech.


Assume that everything about the speech is the same.


Same words.


Same delivery.


Same everything.


The only difference is when you give the speech.


The goal is to persuade a company to change its operations.


Here's scenario 1:


Everything is absolutely wonderful. Profits are high, chunky bonuses are being handed out, and everyone is getting a raise.


Here's scenario 2:


Everything is absolutely AWFUL. Profits have tanked, bonuses are being taken back, and there are no raises to speak of. 


In which of those scenarios would a speech to persuade a company to change its operations actually succeed?


Specifically when it is clear that the operations aren't working.




Because you do not speak in a bubble. The facts of the outside world always influence your audience. Again, context is everything.


Will people want to change the way a company works when everything is wonderful?




How about when everything is awful?


Most likely.


Kairos is INCREDIBLY powerful. You are making the outside world your partner in persuasion. You are using an AMAZING persuasive element: the reality of the lives your audience are living.


In other words:


They will never ask "what's the evidence?"


If they are LIVING the evidence.


We see Kairos being used by politicians all the time...


...and they probably don't even know it.


Every time a politician speaks of economic reform during a stock market crash, that's Kairos.


Every time a politician speaks of adding a traffic cop after a massive jam, that's Kairos.


Every time a politician speaks of making Mexico pay for a wa... you know what? Let's not go there.


But you get the point.


Timing is everything. Save your persuasion for when it is most likely to succeed. You will add the most powerful persuasive element to your speech, without even changing the words.


The Core Human Drives

Want to figure out how to use a machine?


You've gotta read the manual. Either that, or fiddle with it for hours. But once you get it, it's easy.


Let me tell you something:


The human mind is a machine.


A complex machine, yes, but with a simple manual.


Want to figure out how to influence people's decisions? 


You've gotta read the manual to the human mind!


And guess what:


I have it!


Am I going to give it to you, instead of making you pay for my book to get it?


I think we know by now that I will. I'm too nice.


But I'm not that nice, so I'll just give you some of it.


Here's the basic process:


  1. Identify the 6 core human drives. (I give them to you in the book).

  2. Identify where the core human drives and your topic overlap.

  3. Identify which of the core human drives are motivating your audience.

  4. So far it's been jab, jab, jab. Time for the right-hook, knockout blow: speak in terms of the core drives you've identified as (1) motivating your audience and (2) relating to your topic.


Complex? Maybe.


Complex when compared with the awesome complexity of the human mind? Not at all.


Truth be told:


This is an insanely easy 4-step process. It really is a simple guide to a complex machine.

Use of Statistics

Guess what:


There's a way to accomplish some very cool things, such as:


  • Sounding incredibly smart.

  • Being extremely convincing.

  • Winning almost every argument.


Here's how:


STATISTICS. Statistics are so powerful if used correctly.


Here's some of the book's tips on statistics:


  • Be careful to avoid non-sequitors (the statistic not actually supporting your main claim).

  • Clearly and deliberately explain your warrants (the logic connecting your statistic to your main claim).

  • Always explain the significance of a statistic.


And two more advanced techniques:


  • Relate the statistic back to the room (if applicable).

  • Mix numbers and qualitative data (there's a formula for this).


I'll explain these last two.


Relate the statistic back to the room. For example, if your statistic is:


"1/3 people will lose their jobs because of a coming recession." (Don't worry, I just made that up. You'll be fine this coming recession!)


Then you can follow it by saying:


"Look around... either you, the person to your left, or the one to your right, out of work in 5 years."


But then, bam! Ease that pain. We'll talk about this later (it's incredibly powerful).


As for the last technique, there's one problem with statistics:


People cannot always relate to numbers.


We often struggle to comprehend statistics.


So follow your statistics up with a qualitative, emotional statement. Ethos and pathos working together.

Monroe's Motivated Sequence

I mentioned different speech structures previously, right?


Well... let me tell you...


This one is seriously powerful.


Here's how it works:


  1. Attention

  2. Need

  3. Satisfaction

  4. Visualization

  5. Action


I won't reveal much about this here.


Just know one thing. This combination...


  1. The core human drives.

  2. The basic principles of persuasion.

  3. Kairos.

  4. Ethos, pathos, logos.

  5. Emotion-convergence.

  6. Statistics used correctly.

  7. Monroe's motivated sequence.

  8. The many techniques taught later in this book (like sententia, hypophora, etc).


...will be able to convince basically anyone of anything.

The Informational Motivated Sequence

Have you ever been in a classroom with a teacher that nobody listened to?




...let me tell you something:


Me too.


And I had a solution for them (which I never gave them... they would've been offended, right?)


Here's the solution:


The informational motivated sequence.


It's using Monroe's Motivated Sequence to persuade your audience to do this:


Listen to your information!


And it's unbelievably powerful.


Here’s how a 15-minute persuasive speech could be structured with Monroe’s motivated sequence:


  1. Attention (3 minutes)

  2. Need (3 minutes)

  3. Satisfaction (3 minutes)

  4. Visualization (3 minutes)

  5. Action (3 minutes)


Here’s how an informational speech of roughly the same length can be structured with the informational motivated sequence:


  1. Attention (1-minute maximum)

  2. Need (1-minute maximum)

  3. Satisfaction (1-minute maximum)

  4. Visualization (1-minute maximum)

  5. Information (10 minutes minimum)

  6. Action (1-minute maximum, if applicable)


This is a super secret formula that you can use every single day.


Like an accordian, it can be stretched and compacted.


Have 3 minutes in a meeting to inform?


Compact it.


Have 20 minutes during a seminar?


Stretch it.


It is incredibly versatile, incredibly powerful, and taught with incredible detail in the book.


In other words:


This section of the book will teach you how to get anyone anywhere to listen to anything you want to inform them about.

Agree Promise Preview Method





Because it is filled with so many powerful formulas...


...formulas that you can easily use immediately.


Here's one of the many:


It's called the Agree Promise Preview method.


And it is a KILLER opening.


Here's how it goes:


  1. Agree with your audience on a pain point.

  2. Promise that you will reveal a solution.

  3. Preview the solution.


You'll feel a *slap* as your audience's attention collides with you immediately after finishing this forumla.


This formula is broken down into incredible depth in the book. I'll just give you a quick political example from the book:


“Believe me: I understand just how frustrating and difficult our tax system can be in this state. Every time tax season rolls around, I'm constantly furious at our politicians for trying to extract even more money from us and trying to hide it. I know that the system is extremely complicated, and I know that we shouldn't have to hire a personal accountant just to pay our taxes. [Agree] But I have good news for you. I promise that there is a way for us to reclaim our tax system and get rid of all the red tape. I promise you that there is a solution we can reach for together. [Promise] Today I'm going to be talking about how we can take advantage of hidden tax deductions to pay less, and about how you can join me in the fight to simplify our tax system with a flat tax. [Preview]"


Maybe you aren't bothered by taxes. But put yourself in the shoes of someone who hates the state tax system.


Now, do you see how powerful this opening is?


Here's what it accomplishes:


  • Your audience will believe that you understand them.

  • Your audience will believe that you have a valuable solution for them.

  • Your audience will be carefully listening to your speech because they were primed by the preview phase.


That's a cool word, right? "Primed." 


We'll talk all about priming later on.


How to Win Friends and Influence People...


...a great book, by a man named Dale Carngie.


We talk later about how to apply every single principle in that book to public speaking.


But, to sum up the whole book in two words:




And I have a way to do that:


A concession. Admitting that part of what your opponents are saying is true.


Unfortunately, here's how most books and resources teach concessions:


  • Admit that your opponents are correct about something.

  • Enjoy the trust you just gained at the risk of undermining your own speech.


Not bad. But there's a better way. My way.


Here's how my book teaches concessions:


  • Admit that your oppenents are correct that a particular benefit is important.

  • Agree about the benefit, and then show how your idea has more of that benefit.

  • Enjoy the trust you just gained.

  • Enjoy the lack of risk you gained it with.

  • Enjoy seeming level-headed and objective.

  • Enjoy the ability to assert your idea over an opposing one without seeming petty.


Which do you prefer?


I'm not going to say that mine's better...


...but... definitely is. And luckily for you, the book shows you exactly how to execute this strategy.

Logical Fallacies

If you're like me, you hate being wrong (luckily I never am).


If you're like me, you love proving other people wrong (they always are).


Want to never be wrong again, and instantly recognize (objectively) when other people are wrong?


Then you need to know the logical fallacies.


Aaaaaand here's the problem with that:


There are literally hundreds of them. The "logical fallacy" Wikipedia page looks like a phonebook.


But luckily for you, I chose the 20 most common logical fallacies.


Instead of learning hundreds of them, just learn 20. These 20 will give you 80% of the full picture. They are representative of the whole.


I'll give you 3 of the 20 here.


  1. Ad hominem (fancy Latin).

  2. The correlation-causation fallacy.

  3. The anecdotal fallacy.


"You're telling me to learn these 20 logical fallacies, but you probably don't even know them yourself!"


First of all, I do.


Second of all, that's an ad hominem fallacy (it means against the person).


Even if I knew none of them, I am still correct, because knowing them would still be good for you.


In other words:


To avoid the ad hominem, ignore WHO is saying something, and focus only on WHAT they are saying...


...which can be incredibly hard.


Here's why:


Our identities always impact what we say. It's also incredibly easy to discredit someone as a hypocrite, even if their actual argument is correct.


If someone who has never opened a book says "reading is good," it's hypocritical, but still correct. Unfortunately, we so often confuse being a hypocrite with being wrong.


Which brings me to the correlation-causation fallacy.


Just because X happens before Y...


...doesn't mean X caused Y.


In Latin: post hoc ergo propter hoc non est.


It seems obvious:


If I click open a pen, and immediately a book falls off my table, of course the pen didn't cause it.


But it gets confusing:


What if a company hires a new CEO, and the stock immediately plummets?


Those seem very related. And we assume they must be. Sure, they can be. But they don't have to be. And yet we often assume they are with no further investigation


Here's what "lurking variables" could have caused the same thing:


  • A magazine article predicts a stock plummet, so people sell their stocks causing one.

  • Deep, long-standing managerial issues in the company.

  • Competitors slowly and silently stealing market share.


In fact, what caused the plummets could have also caused the need for a new CEO!


Always, always, always look beyond surface appearances.


And lastly, the anecdotal fallacy.


It's also caused by our very unobjective psychologies.


Here it is:


Anecdotes - individual stories, no matter how powerful - do not establish trends.


They just don't.


Sure, I may know someone who read my book and didn't master public speaking (I don't, but hypothetically).


Still, that one example does not establish a broad trend. Most people, 99% of people, read my book and do master public speaking.


Yet we assume that one example represents the whole truth...


...which is why statistics are so important.


There they are! Do be careful to avoid them (and don't point them out too often, because it gets annoying).

Call to Action
Rhetorical Methods
Persuasion Basics
Core Drives
Motivated Structure
Informational Map
APP Method
Logical Fallacies
Sentence Structure

Sentence Structure

I want you to picture an incredibly eloquent speaker.


JFK? Obama? Theresa May?


Whoever it is, I want to tell you something:


Their eloquence is made up of a set of rhetorical devices...


...that have to do with sentence structure, word choice, and tone.


This is the longest section in the book.


I show you how to use so many rhetorical devices to achieve eloquence.


The best part? It's incredibly easy and straightforward.


All you have to do is sprinkle these devices throughout your speech. They are all powerful and achieve a specific purpose.


Like anaphora, for example, which places emphasis on the "breakaway phrase."


Anaphora is starting consecutive phrases with repeition of the same words. The breakaway phrase is the first one to deviate from the pattern.


Here's a famous instance of anaphora (repetitive phrase underlined, breakaway phrase italicized):


"We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender."


Here's the formula used by Winston Churchill in this famous example:


  1. Choose breakaway phrases that are the most important.

  2. Precede them with phrases using anaphora.

  3. Achieve incredible focus on the breakaway phrases.


What's more important, all the places Britain will fight Germany? Like the "hills" (how vague is that)?


Or (1) the fact that Britain will defend the island no matter the cost, and (2) that Britain will never surrender?


Definitely those last two.


The repetition of "we shall fight" set the stage for the breakaway phrases - the most important phrases - to be emphasized.


This is just one example of countless rhetorical devices.


This is my single favorite chapter in the ENTIRE book. It's so good that I'm considering giving it away for free (it's 30 pages... it could be its own eBook).


Here's my promise about this section:


  • Every technique of LEGENDARY speakers will be unlocked for you.

  • Every technique of MASTER speech writers will be unlocked for you.

  • Every secret of eloquence will be broken down into easy steps and explained in detail so you can immediately use them.


Metaphor, Simile, and Analogy

Context is understanding. I can't say that enough.


Want to make your audience truly understand something?


Explain it to them through the lens of something they already understand.


In other words:


Use a context they know to explain a concept they don't know.




Metaphors, Similes, and Analogies.


The book teaches you some very useful techniques to use Metaphors, Similes, and Analogies.

Diction and Word Choice

Compare these two sentences:


  1. “Climate change is a threat to our wellbeing and long-term success as a species," and

  2. “Climate change is a precariousness to our durability and our longevity of opulence as a variety of life on Earth.”


This is a simple example that disproves a common belief, that sophistication is the product of complicated words.


Would you call that second sentence sophisticated? No. Of course not.


Instead, here's the truth:


Sophistication is the product of SIMPLICITY.


If you can use simple words to explain complex concepts...


...THAT is true sophistication.


Some of the tips about diction and word choice from the book:


  • Do not use unnecessarily unusual words (or, should I say, self-prevent your own utilization of superflously peculiar words).

  • Spruce up your diction for formal speeches.

  • Use casual, everyday language for conversational speeches.

  • The first way you thought of saying something is the most natural. Use it.

  • For formal speeches, do not use contractions.

  • For conversational speeches, do use contractions.


I can't believe I haven't told you this yet:


Good public speaking is just the mastery of a set of key subtleties.






These all impact your audience, and how they see you.


However, if you ask them why they think you are "polished," or "casual," they probably won't be able to tell you why.


But I know why. And you do too.


Why? Because you took the time to master a set of key subtleties.

Active and Passive Voice

Which of the following sounds better?


  1. The man probably wrote five speeches. (The man, who is the subject, is doing the verb, which is the eating).

  2. Five speeches were probably written by the man. (The subject is now the five speeches, and they are receiving the action of the verb because they are being written).


If you said number two...'re wrong.


Number one sounds SIGNIFICANTLY better.


Why? Because it is in the active voice.


The second one is in the passive voice. That's why it sounds so... soft, unclear, and passive.


The active sentence is strong and straight forward.


There's one rule:


Use the active voice. Always. Except in one case.


What's that one case?


When you are trying to hide something. Like Caesar, when he used the passive voice to describe his military failures.

To be honest:

There are legitimate uses of the passive voice, especially when you are trying to obscure the role of the subject in the sentence. But most of the time, you're not.


This is the most powerful equation I have ever discovered.


Well...'s the only equation I've ever discovered.


It is also the only public speaking equation that exists (for now... I have more to develop).


But still:


It is insanely powerful. It is also a secret, only to be found in the pages of my book.


Why? Because it is one of the most powerful public speaking concepts. Because it allows you to immediately become a significantly better speaker. Because it just... works. Because it's extremely simple.


I'll tell you what it does:


  • Maximizes the amount of information you can give your audience.

  • Makes you an incredibly efficient speaker.

  • Gives you a way to develop a "no-nonsense, here's the knowledge I'm dropping on you" stage persona.

  • Makes pretty much everyone cling to your words.

  • Helps you use the smallest number of words possible to deliver more information.

  • Makes you immediately sound like you know exactly what you're talking about.

  • Sets you up for an awesome "mic-drop" moment.


Here's the equation:


Substance = I / W, where I = CPI + 0.5*INT + 0.5*RPI.


This is a real thing. CPI, INT, and RPI all stand for something.


You can multiply your answer by 10 to get a more intuitive score.


Want to figure out how substantive your speech is? Want to figure out how to be incredibly efficient (and sophisticated) with your words? 


This equation is the answer. The book also shows examples of good and bad substance scores in politics.


It also shows you insanely easy strategies to increase substance score. It takes a speech with bad substance score, and turns it into one with good substance score.

This is possibly the most important insight I've had while writing this book.


Ahh... yet another insanely powerful idea in the book.


Novelty. Preserve it, and you win. Let it go, and you lose. It's that simple.


Novelty is absolutely critical if you want:


  • More attention when you speak.

  • Better memory of your message.

  • Effective communication from one mind to another.


Novelty is providing new information to your audience; it is knowing exactly when to move on from an idea.


See, there's a problem:


Public speakers often fully cover one idea, and then keep going deeper and deeper.


All the while, their audience grows restless.


Here's why this is a problem:


Your audience will not remember your details one year later (in some cases, even one week later).


Which brings me to a fundamental truth of public speaking:


Your audience will remember concepts, ideas, and the big picture...


...not miniscule details.


If part of your speech doesn't support the big picture message, don't include it.


If a detail of your speech isn't absolutely essential, don't include it.




Because chasing miniscule details that nobody will remember increases cognitive load on your audience...


...for no good reason.


Here's a simple analogy:


Your message and core idea is a forest. Your details that make up this forest are trees.


Don't lose sight of the forest by being so focused on the trees. Know when to move on, and provide novelty to your audience by adaquately covering three main points instead of fully exhausting one.

Refresher Phrases

Here's a secret:


I just used a refresher phrase.


And it probably grabbed your attention.


Why? Because with 3 words, I just told you that I have a secret, and that I'm about to give it to you...


...and who doesn't want a secret?


The same principle applies to public speaking. You can use refresher phrases just like I did.


For example, here's how two refresher phrases can be used in a problem / solution construction (we'll talk about it):


"There's a problem that impacts each and every single one of you, every single day. Here's the problem: [insert problem]. Luckily, there's a solution that, for some reason, nobody knows about. Here's the solution: [insert solution]."


The phrases "here's the problem," and "here's the solution," are incredibly powerful!


Here's why:


They tell the audience that something important is coming up. They are immediate attention grabbers. They prime the audience to pay close attention.


Here's another reason why they are so powerful:


They build a sense of novelty. They build a feeling that you are rapidly giving new information to your audience.


"Information anticipation" is critical. It is why some speakers command full attention, and others do not.

Positive and Inclusive Language

It's logical:


To be an effective speaker, you must be relatable to your audience.


To be relatable to your audience, you must use inclusive language.


Sounds vague, right? "Inclusive language..."


It's actually very simple. Here's how you use it:


Wherever you feel like saying "you" or "I"... must instead say "us" or "we."


Confused? I hope not. Because it really is that simple.


Here's why this strategy works:


Words like "you" and "I" emphasize the separation between you and your audience.


Words like "us" and "we" immediately and subtly group you and your audience together...


...thus building relatability.


That's why in a presidential debate, when Bush answered an audience question and said "[of money] it all comes out of your pocket and my pocket," I just got so mad.


Why your pocket and my pocket? Why not our pockets?


At least Bill Clinton got it right, when he used the word "we" 16 times in his response. He also won that election by 6 million votes.


He won just because he used inclusive language?


Not quite. Here's why he won:


Because his audiences felt understood, related to, and included. Why? Because of his overall inclusive rhetoric during that campaign.


This is my favorite section of the book (I know I say that about all of them).


Why? Because what happened on that presidential debate stage connects so many critical elements of beautiful public speaking... giving us an example of good and bad... right after the other!


The entire scene is disected in INCREDIBLE depth in the book. If you buy the book and read only 3 sections from it, this one absolutely must be one of them. 


Let me give you one last core public speaking principle:


Do not speak your mind...


...speak your audience's mind.

Saliency, Intensity, and Stability

Do you want 77% of people to listen to you? Do you want to get up on a stage, and have everyone immediately interested in your speech? Do you want to command the attention of an entire room?


In other words... you want people to care about your speech?


I know I do. And in this highly secretive section from the book, I show you exactly how to achieve that (atleast 2/3 of the time). 


Since it's so secret, I will just give you a general process:


  1. Identify 1 to 3 audience personas (depending on the size of your audience).

  2. Understand the concepts of saliency, intensity, and stability.

  3. Identify topics that are salient, intense, and stable to those personas.

  4. Is your topic one of those? If so, stop here. You're all set.

  5. Is your topic not one of those? If so, continue to step 6.

  6. Use a method called alignment to connect your topic to one you identified as salient, intense, and stable.


Let me tell you something:


There are many core processes in this book that make a MASSIVE difference.


They are intuitive, simple, and extremely powerful.


This is one of them. Understanding this concept is often the difference between success and failure.


And it's great:


This strategy works even if you're talking to one person.


But here's the best part:


This strategy is just so damn simple and elegant.


I really wish I could've given it to you here for free. But you understand why I can't do that. :(


I will give you this visualization. The goal is to tap into the power of the 3-way intersection in the middle.


Permission, Consensus, and Division

It gets even more exciting!


Permission, consensus, and division are extensions to saliency, stability, and intensity.


Here's what these words mean:


  • A topic is permissive if it is easy to sway people's opinions on it.

  • A topic has consensus if everyone agrees on it.

  • A topic is divisive if people are split in half, and there's a small minority in the middle.


If a topic has saliency, intensity, and stability, then it is probably divisive, or has consensus.


Great. Those can be difficult to work with.


Here's why:


If a topic has consensus, most people agree on it. What happens if you challenge that common agreement?


If a topic is divisive, that means that some people will disagree with you no matter what.


And here's where it gets seriously awesome:


Saliency, intensity, and stability are incredibly powerful...


...but the absence of them can be just as powerful.


Here's why:


A topic that does not have those three qualities is permissive.


Which means this:


You can develop saliency, intensity, and stability in your audience, in whichever direction you want to.


In other words:


It's a blank slate, and your voice is the pen.


I know these two sections seemed abstract. Believe me, they are incredibly concrete. I just wanted to give you an overview here without giving it completely away.

Theme and Subject

Do you want to immediately understand public speaking on an intuitive level? Do you want to unlock the single most important secret of legendary speeches? Do you want to master one of public speaking's fundamental principles?


Then you absolutely must read this section.


People seem to confuse theme and subject all the time... my disappointment.


Here's what a subject is:


Your topic. What are you talking about? That's your subject.


Here's what a theme is:


Your answer to the question "what about it?"






Let me explain:


A speech about climate change is not a speech with a theme of climate change.


The subject of that speech is climate change, but there are many possible themes that could match with that subject.


A subject is what a speech is actually about, while a theme is a different perspective from which to view that subject.


Think of a speech’s subject as what you are photographing, and your theme as different camera angles, filters, and brightness settings. The subject is always the same, but theme is what highlights different aspects of it over others, views it from a different perspective, and changes the overall perception of it.


And let me tell you:


If you want to make every speech a success... must do one simple thing with theme and subject...


...which I reveal in the book. ;)

Most people will be upset with me for this. In fact, I have a feeling most people will love one of the public speakers mentioned in this section, and hate the other. Who's loved and who's hated? Well... that depends on you.


Let's start with the first speaker.




Yes, Trump.


Know the guy?


Of course you do.


Quite frankly...


...whether you hate him or love him...


...he does do one thing very well.


Here's what it is:




He used this technique to get through the Republican primary debates, and then through the national ones too.


In fact, this technique is probably present in every Trump tweet, speech, or interview.


In the book, we analyze in great depth the Republican debates, and find two powerful techniques:


  • Frame specification.

  • Frame escalation.


But those were debates! This book is about public speaking, not debating. So to find out how to use these techniques in a public speech, not a debate, we turn to our second speaker of this section.


Hillary Clinton.


Yes, Hillary.


Know her?


Of course you do.


I swear, I didn't plan this. After hours of research and analysis, these were the best 2 examples.


If you were mad earlier, you're probably happy now. If you were happy earlier, then you're probably mad now. Or...


...if you're like me... just want to master public speaking, so you don't care either way.


Here's what Hillary teaches us:


  • Frame presentation.


And these 3 techniques:


  1. Frame escalation.

  2. Frame specification.

  3. Frame presentation.


Are all incredibly powerful when used together.


The book shows you exactly how to use these techniques in every single speech

Softening and Hardening

Do you know someone that's incredibly blunt?


They just say what's on their mind... incredibly straightforward language.


Do you know someone that's very soft?


They dance around difficult subjects, and never tackle things head-on.


Which one do you want to be as a public speaker?


Here's the answer:


It depends on the situation.


Do you want to be jarring, straightforward, and shocking?


If so, harden your statement. Don't worry... I'll show you how.


Do you want to obscure something? Do you want to be more "gentle"?


Then soften your statement.


Let's compare a soft, neutral, and hard statement:


  • Softened: "Climate change might cause some difficulties."

  • Neutral: "Climate change will hurt our existence."

  • Hardened: "Climate change will destroy us."


It's incredibly valuable.


Want to be a master public speaker?


Then you need to be versatile.


And how do you become versatile?


You need to learn how to soften and harden a neutral statement.


The book shows you exactly how.


Here's what the book has to say about simplicity:


There’s beauty in simplicity. An idea presented simply is an idea long remembered by your audience. Focus on the big picture before getting into specifics, and make sure that your audience is following the progression of your speech.

Oftentimes, experts forget that they are speaking to an audience that isn’t made up of other experts. What ensues is a situation in which the speaker describes things in the complex jargon of his or her trade, while the audience is left helplessly trying to follow along. If you are presenting a complex topic, don’t make your audience feel like they are “mentally running” to keep up with you. Hold their hands and take them for a nice, gentle walk through the information instead.

There a few key considerations to remember when striving for simplicity. Firstly, if you can compress a concept without losing the nuance of it, then do so. Why express an idea in five sentences if you can do it in two or three. Secondly, do not speak in the vocabulary of your trade if you are speaking to people who have nothing to do with it.


A climatologist should never say something like “As exemplified by the El Nino-Southern Oscillation and the concurrent Northern Annular Mode, we can clearly see that there’s need for greater synthesis between paleoclimatology and paleotempestology.” Of course, that’s encouraged if the audience is made up solely of climatologists. However, if the audience isn’t made up of climatologists, then the speaker shouldn’t speak in terms that only another climatologist could ever understand.

Break down your speech until it is simple and easy to follow. Unless you are aiming for evocative, flowing, beautiful language, don’t say more than you need to. Furthermore, don’t say it in more complex words than you need to. Always keep it simple."


I've said it before...


...I'll say it again:


The human mind is a machine.


In other words:


It works in predictable ways.


Priming is very multi-faceted. In fact, I'm sure there could be an entire book on psychological priming.


But for now, I'll focus on one incredibly powerful public speaking technique:


Priming statements.


So if you want:


More attention.


More interest.


More memory of your speech.


Use a priming statement.


A priming statement prepares your audience to recieve your information. It sets the stage for a successful speech. It's like a table of contents in a book: it gives people a map of what is to come, so that when it does, they are prepared.


Seems insignificant? It isn't. Far from it. Many speeches start with priming statements. The first words out of the speaker's mouth answer this question: "what are you going to speak to me about today?"


I'll give you an example from my life.


One of my speeches in a Massachussets Speech and Debate League was in response to this question:


"What factors will influence voters most in the Midterm Elections?"


I had 3 factors in my response. Indeed, I could have done this:


"[Factor 1] [Long explanation of factor 1], [Factor 2] [Long explanation of factor 2], [Factor 3] [Long explanation of factor 3]."


But instead, I made a crucial strategic decision. I said this:


"[Factor 1], [Factor 2], [Factor 3] (priming statement). [Long explanation of factor 1], [Long explanation of factor 2], [Long explanation of factor 3]."


I essentially front-loaded my speech with the answers that set the stage for the whole thing. Thus, I primed my audience.


Why? Here's why:


  • Giving my full answer first, like a table of contents, primed the audience and the judges.

  • Frontloading my answer started my speech on a "complete" note, instead of leaving the audience wondering what else would come next.

  • It set the stage for the rest of my speech.

  • It primed the audience to see how the rest of the speech fit into the frame of a cohesive answer.

  • It primed the audience to understand the rest of my speech through the context of a very simple answer.

  • It gave an extremely concise, straightforward answer.

I won that round. :)


I won that tournament. :)


Priming statements played a huge role in that.

Personal Anecdotes

Content Conclusion

Mental Model Shifts and Reframing

Want to build MASSIVE relatability?


Want your audience to listen to you because they like you?


Want to inform your audience while you're building relatability and likeability?


I know I do.


And here's how I do it, and how you can too:


Personal anecdotes.


People love stories.


Think about it:


So much of the information we digest is in the form of stories.




Because stories engage us.


Here's an example of a climatologist using a personal anecdote (from the book):


“I was out in Alaska, and the sun was shining brightly, yet the temperature was still biting through what felt like 15 layers of clothes. My assistant kept asking that we turn back for more hand warmers, but to his dismay, we pressed on. After pawing around in the snow for what seemed like hours, we found the monitors we had planted exactly one year ago. I froze - no pun intended - when I saw the reading. The ice was warming at extreme temperatures, and the sea levels were rising because of it. My assistant kept talking to me, and I would tell you what he said, but in that moment the only thing on my mind was the thought of my coastal home being underwater within the next ten years.”


Here's why that works:


  • It informs the audience.

  • It embeds the information in an engaging story.

  • It is interactive, therefore engaging.

  • It expresses the danger of climate change in an indirect but powerful way. It's subtle.

  • It forms a WONDERFUL connection between speaker and audience.


Quoted straight from the book:


"It’s easy to forget the importance of content and words when you’re reading about the public speaking techniques that come in the Use of Body and Use of Voice sections. Just remember: at the heart of every truly great speech lies truly great content. Just as a flawed delivery can ruin beautiful content, flawed content can ruin a beautiful delivery. Similar to preparation, if you feel anxious about being able to exert control of the situation when you are actually in the moment giving your speech, you still have 100% control over your content. Take advantage of that and create compelling, meaningful, and powerful content that carries true substance. Remember your toolbox? Well, content is one third of it. Your words are your power. Put your best efforts into developing the best possible content for your speech."


Other Chapters

Metaphors and More
Active and Passive
Refresher Phrases
Positive & Inclusive
Saliency and More
Permission and More
Theme and Subject
Soft and Hard
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